Eastern Europe and Central Asia includes 17 countries of the IUCN Statutory Region East Europe, North and Central Asia: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, the Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The countries in the ECA region are included in the following geographical sub-regions: Eastern Europe (Belarus, Moldova, the Russian Federation and Ukraine), South Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Serbia), South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan).
Facts about the region:
- The total area of land in the ECA region accounts for about 15% of the world landmass, and has an approximate total population of 303 million people, constituting about 4.17% of the global population.
- The region includes the largest country in the world, the Russian Federation, as well as the largest landlocked country in the world, Kazakhstan.
- The region covers 12 time zones.
- Following the classification of natural terrestrial ecosystems, the region falls within the Palearctic Ecozone, and encompasses 8 of the 14 Biomes in the world.
- According the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 684 taxa (species and subspecies) in the ECA region are threatened with extinction. Of these, 138 are in the category Critically Endangered (CR).
The region is also known for the presence of some of the most iconic large mammals, such as Siberian Tiger, Snow and Persian Leopards, Polar Bear, European Bison, Saiga Antelope, Argali Sheep, Orca or Beluga Whale. Many other species of global importance occur in the region.